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Instructional Design Sequence

Quality Instructional Design (ID), focuses on the individual rather than on mere content. The sequence of required pre-planning thought is the same regardless of whether designing for face-to-face classroom settings, online distance education courses, or blended hybrid approach.

Questions to ask include:

1. What is the instructional problem?
What is the gap to be closed or need to be fulfilled?

2. What are the Learner characteristics?
Are formative metrics available? Existing skills? Competencies? Attitudes? What is the context in which learners arrive to class? What are their preferred learning styles? Are special accommodations required? What is the age range?

3. What content and/or tasks are to be learned?
Topical considerations?
Procedural considerations?
Critical considerations?

4. What are the learning objectives?
Cognitive facts, concepts, principles
Psychomotor skills and procedures to perform
Affective attitudes to emulate

5. What is the best sequence for delivery?
Observable –> Discoverable
Simple –> Complex

6. What strategies will optimize the delivery?
What will make the presentation most meaningful?
Will learners work individually or in groups?
What generative strategies will be employed for aiding recall, integration, organization, and elaboration?

7. What design features should be included?
What visual image cues and text cues will be incorporated?
Pretests? Overviews? Comparatives?

8. Develop the Instruction
Focused, heuristic, paced, and consistent.
Attention given to intrinsic cognitive load and avoiding extraneous cognitive loads.

9. Create the evaluation instruments
How will learning be measured to accurately demonstrate objectives were met?

10. What are the Instruction Facilitator needs?
In light of his or her dominant teaching style?
In light of his or her personal teaching philosophy?


References
Morrison, G., Ross, S., & Kemp, J. (2007), Designing effective instruction (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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